viernes, septiembre 14, 2007

LA OROYA 5ta. LUGAR ENTRE LAS MAS CONTAMINADAS DEL MUNDO, TRISTE RECORD

La lista de este año por orden alfabético son:


- Sumgayit, Azerbayán. 275.000 habitantes expuestos a metales pesados y productos químicos orgánicos.

- Linfen, China. Tres millones de habitantes afectados por cenizas y compuestos orgánicos volátiles en suspensión.

- Tianjin, China. Plomo y metales pesados afectan a 140.000 personas.

- Sukinda, India. Más de 2,5 millones de personas expuestas a hexavalente de cromo.

- Vapi, India. Productos químicos y metales pesados afectan a sus 70.000 habitantes.

- La Oroya, Perú. Plomo, cobre y zinc afectan a sus 35.000 habitantes.

- Dzerzhinsk, Rusia. Sus 300.000 vecinos están sometidos a altos niveles de sarín, plomo y polifenoles, a menudo procedentes de industrias bélicas.

- Norilsk, Rusia. La minas de níquel contaminan con metales pesados y fenoles a 134.000 habitantes.

- Chernóbil, Ucrania. Unos 5,5 millones de habitantes sufren niveles altos de radiactividad tras la explosión de la central nuclear en 1986.

- Kabwe, Zambia. Plomo y cadmio contaminan esta población de 255.000 habitantes.

La Blacksmith Institute ha realizado una investigación sobre las ciudades más contaminadas del mundo y llegó a la conclusión que la Oroya es la 5ta.. más contaminada:

El presidente regional de Junín, Vladimiro Huároc, informó ayer que por segundo año consecutivo la ciudad de La Oroya continúa en la lista de los diez lugares más contaminados del mundo.

Según explicó, la referida lista fue anunciada por el Blacksmith Institute, un grupo ambiental independiente que trabaja en asociación con la Cruz Verde de Suiza.

La empresa Doe Run es la que tiene a su cargo los trabajos de la fundición, mas información sobre la historia de La Oroya en la siguiente pagina.

http://www.todosobrelaoroya.org/historia.php

En estos días donde la atención esta centrada sobre Majaz, en su consulta popular y los empresarios mineros estan reunidos en Arequipa. La Oroya se presenta con el triste récord de ser la ciudad más contaminada del continente.

La empresa Doe Run no cumplio con el PAMA. La situación es realmente paradójica, porque la mayoría de la población apoya a la empresa sabiendo que no cumple con los niveles mínimos de contaminación.

Nuevamente, nuestro país esta en conflictos difíciles de entender. La falta de educación en la población hace posible que este tipo de manipulaciones ocurran y estos hechos en nada ayudan a los verdaderos intereses del Perú.

37 comentarios:

garauzo@email dijo...

La Blacksmith Institute los años 2006 y 2007 han realizado investigación sobre las ciudades más contaminadas del mundo y llegó a la conclusión que la Oroya se halla entre las 10 ciudades más contaminadas del mundo; ha sido muy benévola; de acuerdo a mis investigaciones de varios años que vengo difundiendo, la Oroya es la más contaminada del Perú, América latina y también del mundo y cada vez se está contaminando más: plomo en sangre en niños de la Oroya Antigua 53.7 ug/dl (DIGESA 1999) embarazadas 39.49 ug/dl (UNES 2000), niños al nacer 19.06 ug/dl, 319 ug/100 gramos de placenta (Castro 2003 y 39 ug/dl en trabajadores (Doe Run 2003). Máximo aceptado de plomo en sangre 10 ug/dl..

Actualmente la Academia de Pediatría de USA considera como máximo permitido 0 ug/ dl..Cuando la Oroya estaba en manos de Centromin eliminaba por la chimenea de 167.500 metros de altura en promedio, por día y toneladas: bióxido de azufre 1000, plomo 2500, arsénico 2500, cadmio 80, material particulado 40 y así sucesivamente, más 24,000 de gases tóxicos producto de la combustión incompleta del carbón, sin contar lo que se elimina el incinerador industrial y por las 94 chimeneas pequeñas (PAMA El Complejo Metalúrgico de la Oroya, 1996) que se calcula 15,000 toneladas; sumadas 45,000 toneladas día.

Doe Run envía cada 3 meses las concentraciones de los metales pesados al Ministerio de Energía y Minas y con estos datos Cederstav ha demostrado que la contaminación se ha incrementado; por ejemplo el bióxido de azufre se ha elevado a cerca del 300% por aumento de la producción (Cerderstav. La Oroya no Espera, 2002)

La Asociación Interamericana del Ambiente dice que la calidad ambiental de la Oroya se ha deteriorado severamente desde que Doe Run se hizo cargo y la misma empresa declara que las concentraciones de los gases de metales pesados se ha incrementado en el aire: plomo 1160%, cadmioi 1990% y arsénico 606% (Portugal C y Cols. Los Humos de Doe Run, 2003)

Dr. Godofredo Arauzo
E-mail:godo_ara@hotmail.com

garauzo@email dijo...

Réplica al Comentario del Señor Victor Belaunde sobre la Contaminación de la Oroya Perú
Dr. Godofredo Arauzo

La Blacksmith visitó la Oroya en Mayo del 2008. Las observaciones sobre los logros sobre la contaminación de este complejo según asevera La Asociación Interamericana de Defensa del Ambiente (AIDA) son ENGAÑOSAS, porque sus afirmaciones carecen de fundamento; es un resumen de la afirmaciones presentadas por Doe Run. AIDA sostiene que la calidad ambiental, el cumplimiento o el grado de protección de la salud humana de la Oroya no se pueden evaluar basándose en el nivel de inversión de la compañía, sino debe hacerse sobre la base de los datos actuales de la calidad del aire, nivel de plomo en la sangre y otros indicadores ambientales y de salud, que el informe no considera.(1).
Critica que Blacksmith se basa en datos limitados para evaluar; por ejemplo el nivel del azufre en la zona .La Blacksmith afirma que la concentración del SO2.en promedio diurno es de 5.000 ug/m3 en la Oroya (máximo permitido 13 ug/m3 CDC 2006); pero en el día en que estaba esta institución en la Oroya, la concentración del SO2 fue de 0.(1).
Finalmente AIDA concluye que el informe Blacksmith menoscaba los esfuerzos para alcanzar realmente la remediación y limpieza de la Oroya (1).
AIDA en otro comentario expresa que la calidad del aire de la Oroya se ha deteriorado seriamente desde que el complejo metalúrgico pasó a manos de Doe Run. La misma Doe Run manifestó que la concentración del plomo se elevó 1.163 %, arsénico 606% y cadmio 1990% (2). Las concentraciones de plomo, cadmio, arsénico, bióxido de azufre y otros se han incrementado sustancialmente desde 1997 (3), especialmente por el aumento de la producción; por ejemplo la producción del plomo aumentó 25% (2). Los pobladores de la Oroya están contaminados por un cóctel tóxico (4). Es un laboratorio viviente.
La concentración del cadmio (Cd) aumentó dramáticamente desde que adquirió Doe Run el complejo. En 1999 la concentración del Cd en el Sindicato era de 0.22 ug/m3.(permitido 0.0055 ug/m3); excedió en más de 40 veces el límite y dejó de informar al Ministerio de Energía y Minas MEM la concentración del Cd desde el 2000; de la misma manera la concentración del arsénico se incrementó significativamente desde 1997: No se monitorea material particulado de menos de 2.5 micras (PM 2.5), que son las más peligrosas para la salud humana; y se movilizan fácilmente. Ceverstav dice que todos los parámetros de calidad de aire se han deteriorado dramáticamente desde que Doe Run se hizo cargo del complejo (5).
La Agencia de Protección Ambiental de USA (Environment Protection Agency EPA) tiene registrado 1467 compuesto químicos más peligrosos y el bióxido de azufre (SO2) se encuentra en el número 16 de peligrosidad (6). Ceverstav demostró con los mismos datos que envía Doe Run al MEM cada 3 meses que la eliminación del SO2 aumentó en más del 200% desde que Doe Run se hizo cargo del complejo (5).
La Blacksmith afirma que la concentración del SO2.en la Oroya en promedio es de 5.000 ug/m3 (1); otro autor informa que el promedio es de 934 ug/m3 (2); permitido 13 ug/m3 (7). La concentración en el día del SO2 es más elevada entre las 8 de la mañana y 5 de la tarde llega a un pico de 2100 ppb (permitido 280 ppb) (5), El 13-8-08 la concentración del SO2 llegó a un límite histórico y espeluznante: 27,000 ug/m3 (8-9-10);permitido 13 ug/m3 (7).
No se analizan en la Oroya otros metales pesados y sustancia altamente tóxicas: vanadio, uranio, mercurio, antimonio, bario, selenio, cromo, cobalto, molibdeno, niquel y aluminio (2) Los pobladores de la Oroya no sólo están contaminados con el plomo sino también con cadmio, arsénico, bióxido de azufre y antimonio; que la concentración de antimonio es 30 veces más alta, que en USA (11). La Oroya es un laboratorio viviente..
En la Oroya en los últimos 5 años no hubo reducción de la concentración del plomo en el aire; en Huanchan la concentración supera 15 veces lo permitido; en los meses de Enero y Febrero del 2007 en la estación de Huanchan la concentración de plomo se excedió 245 % a lo permitido; el 2006, la concentración de cadmio superó 48 veces a los permitido por la OMS (12): la producción del plomo aumentó 25% (2)
Doe Run sólo monitorea las fuentes puntuales, no monitorea los agentes tóxicos que se eliminan por las 95 chimeneas pequeñas, ni los depósitos de concentrados y arsénico de Vados y Malpaso, cómo tampoco monitorea lo que elimina el incinerador industrial y la planta de coque que eliminaba 23,800 metros cúbicos por día de gases tóxicos(PAMA).
Doe Run explicaba que la contaminación de la Oroya había disminuido; un asistente le espetó: la contaminación ha aumentado; el expositor contestó: muestre un documento de lo que afirma, el asistente le replicó: el mejor documento que tengo es mi cuerpo contaminado.(4).
Las emisiones del SO2 de las fundiciones peruanas de cobre están entre las fuentes industriales de más alta concentración de bióxido de azufre del mundo y se hallan entre las más contaminadas también del mundo(13).
No se cuenta con datos concretos sobre los sistemas de control de calidad en la toma de muestras y análisis del monitoreo empleado por la empresa; no se tiene la certeza que la información reportada al MEM sea precisa, confiable y adecuada; los datos reportados al MEM podría considerarse como una aproximación y subvaluados; no son electrónicas ni graficados (5)
La contaminación que genera la Oroya no sólo está circunscrita en esta ciudad sino también contamina a zonas distantes como Concepción que está a 100 kilómetros de la Oroya: La Universidad de Missouri detectó en los niños de 0-6 años plomo en sangre: 20-44 ug/dl en el 72.22%; 10-19ug/dl en el 16.67 %; 45-69 ug/dl en el 8.33% y menos de 10 ug/dl en el 2.78 %.; o sea el 97.22 % de los niños de Concepción están contaminados con más de 10 ug/dl de plomo en sangre; lo permitido era 10 ug/dl; pero actualmente la Academia de Pediatría de USA dice que lo máximo permitido es 0 ug/dl de plomo en sangre (14) En zona rural cercana a la Oroya Cuchimachay; cadmio en el suelo 59.26 ppm (permitido 3 ppm); en este lugar no existe cobertura vegetal (15).
El complejo metalúrgico de la Oroya tiene 37 afluentes líquidos que eliminan al río Mantaro; Doe Run solamente monitorea 12. Las directivas del estado peruano sobre el monitoreo de la calidad del agua en la operaciones mineras establece que todas las descargas líquidas a las aguas superficiales deben ser monitoreadas regularmente (5-16)
El 26-7-06 Doe Run adquirió el certificado ISO 14001:2004 (17) y el 11 de Marzo del 2008 le anulan por incumplir las leyes ambientales peruanas y por carecer de medidas adecuadas para evitar la contaminación (18).
Doe Run cometió el 2007, 4 infracciones graves y 1 simple medio ambientales; el estado peruano le impuso una multa de $ 724,500 ( El Comercio 20-12-08)
En Huancayo a 120 kilómetros de la Oroya existe jurisprudencia. En 1942 el ,poder judicial ordena pagar, a la Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation dueña ese entonces de la Oroya, una indemnización de $ 200,000 a Bazo Velarde, por daños ocasionados a su ganadería Jatunhuasi, por los humos de la Oroya (19).
El poder judicial (20), el Tribunal Constitucional (21) y la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH)(22) exigieron al estado peruano preocuparse por la salud de la ciudad de la Oroya.
La Oroya contamina las aguas superficiales y profundas, el suelo, aire y genera la lluvia ácida (23) que producen daños a la salud humana y animal, a los ecosistemas y biodiversidad. mayormente irreversibles. Los humos de la Oroya ha afectado 700.000 hectáreas alrededor de la Oroya (2-24).
Doe Run disminuirá su contaminación en dos circunstancias: cuando utilice tecnología actualizada como la que practica en su sede central Herculaneum o disminuya las toneladas de refinación, La planta de Trial de Canadá utilizando tecnología limpia, disminuyó 25% la concentración de plomo en sangre de los niños y la concentración de metales pesados en el aire se redujo en más del 75%; en el Paso cuando cerró la fundición, la concentración de plomo en el aire disminuyó de inmediato y la concentración de plomo en la sangre de los niños se redujo en más del 75%;.en Torreón México el gobierno obligó a refinar solamente el 50%, obteniéndose efectos similares a los anteriores (5). Los daños debe pagarlos Doe Run de acuerdo al consenso mundial: EL QUE CONTAMINA PAGA, puesto en vigencia en Europa desde 1972 (25) y como lo hace en Herculaneum; puede replicar estas acciones en la Oroya (2-27)
El 13 de Agosto del 2008 La Oroya ha confirmado ser la ciudad más contaminada del mundo. Este día la concentración del SO2 en la Oroya llegó a un nivel histórico y espeluznante: como dice El Comercio (8); llegó a 27,000 ug/m3; permitido 13 ug/m3 (7) el aparato que medía la concentración llegó a su límite máximo; posiblemente si el aparato tenía más espacio para medir, la cifra habría sido más elevada (8-9-10), pero. cuando la Blacksmith estaba de visita en la Oroya la concentración del SO2 llegó a 0 (cero)(1). Otros datos más que confirman que la Oroya es la ciudad más contaminada del planeta tierra: según el informe Mantaro Revive 2007: el arsénico (As) en la Oroya Antigua tiene una concentración en el suelo de 4713 ppm permitido 12 ppm y el cadmio (Cd) 193.87 ppm permitido 1.4 ppm, según Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines (28).
Email: godo_ara@hotmail.com

Anónimo dijo...

Hey,

I'm just browsing sites for the children of Haiti.

I'm here for a non-profit group that gives their time to
building an oppurunity for the kids in haiti. If anyone wants to give money then then please do so here:

[url=http://universallearningcentre.org]Donate to Haiti[/url] or Help Haiti

They give kids in Haiti a positive learning environment.

Please check them out, they're legitimate.

Any help would be great

Anónimo dijo...

looking for ed drugs? [url=http://www.cahv.org]buy viagra online [/url]and satisfaction in set free shipping at http://www.cahv.org . another good place to [url=http://www.kiosknews.org]buy viagra online[/url] is www.kiosknews.org .

Anónimo dijo...

[URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=14627][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/22/Shriya Saran-145.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

[URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=14628][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/22/Shriya Saran-146.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

[URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=14630][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/22/Shriya Saran-148.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Shriya-Saran-22.htm]Shriya Saran Wallpapers[/url]

Photo gallery at WallpaperHungama.in is dedicated to Shriya Saran Pictures. Click on the thumbnails for enlarged Shriya Saran pictures, personal photographs and exclusive photos. Also check out other Pictures Gallery for High quality and High Resolution image scans, movie captures, movie promos, wallpapers, hollywood & bollywood pictures, photos of actresses and celebrities.

Anónimo dijo...

Hello,
I have developed a new clean web 2.0 wordpress theme.

Has 2 colours silver and blue, has custom header(colour or image).
I am curently working on it, so if you have suggestions let me know.

You can view live demo and download from here www.getbelle.com
If you found bug reports or you have suggestions pm me.
Wish you a happing using.

many thanks to [url=http://www.usainstantpayday.com/]USAInstantPayDay.com[/url] for paying the hosting and developement of the theme

maymnappy

Anónimo dijo...

It's so easy to choose high quality [url=http://www.euroreplicawatches.com/]replica watches[/url] online: [url=http://www.euroreplicawatches.com/mens-swiss-watches-rolex/]Rolex replica[/url], [url=http://www.euroreplicawatches.com/mens-swiss-watches-breitling/]Breitling replica[/url], Chanel replica or any other watch from the widest variety of models and brands.

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/]Bollywood Wallpapers[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Amrita-Rao-2.htm]Amrita Rao[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Aarti-Chhabria-122.htm]Aarti Chhabria[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Asin-32.htm]Asin[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Celina-Jaitley-1.htm]Celina Jaitley[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Deepika-Padukone-5.htm]Deepika Padukone[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Geeta-Basra-24.htm]Geeta Basra[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Kareena-Kapoor-115.htm]Kareena Kapoor[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Katrina-Kaif-11.htm]Katrina Kaif[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Sonal-Chauhan-21.htm]Sonal Chauhan[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Priyanka-Chopra-3.htm]Priyanka Chopra[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

hot pics of megan fox, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187756]megan fox in a bra[/url] megan fox see through
kim kardashian breasts, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187768]kim kardashian bikini pictures[/url] fake kim kardashian
taylor swift news, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187772]the best day taylor swift[/url] taylor swift lyrics you belong to me
a cross over hannah montana, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187786]is hannah montana a lip singer[/url] hannah montana gams
which harry potter character should i date, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187792]harry potter and the half blood prince mp4 download[/url] naked harry potter
cruise ships that go to the greek isles, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187798]baltimore cruise port places close by to shop[/url] bes t 7 day cruise deals from new orleans to mexico
justin bieber my world albu,, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187812]justin beiber baby[/url] is justin bieber gay
britney spears shows her new figure on letterman, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/187814]britney spears black and white[/url] britany spears pregnant
megan fox superbowl commercial, [url=http://discuss.tigweb.org/thread/175542]megan fox biography[/url] megan fox naked photo

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/]Bollywood Wallpapers[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/]Bollywood Actress[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Aishwarya-Rai-114.htm]Aishwarya Rai[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Ayesha-Takia-28.htm]Ayesha Takia[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Diya-Mirza-116.htm]Diya Mirza[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Neha-Dhupia-8.htm]Neha Dhupia[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Nandana-Sen-109.htm]Nandana Sen[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Bipasha-Basu-29.htm]Bipasha Basu[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Neetu-Chandra-34.htm]Neetu Chandra[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Kim-Sharma-119.htm]Kim Sharma[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Zarine-Khan-123.htm]Zarine Khan[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Amrita-Rao-2.htm]Amrita Rao[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Aarti-Chhabria-122.htm]Aarti Chhabria[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Asin-32.htm]Asin[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Celina-Jaitley-1.htm]Celina Jaitley[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Deepika-Padukone-5.htm]Deepika Padukone[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Geeta-Basra-24.htm]Geeta Basra[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Kareena-Kapoor-115.htm]Kareena Kapoor[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Katrina-Kaif-11.htm]Katrina Kaif[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Sonal-Chauhan-21.htm]Sonal Chauhan[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Priyanka-Chopra-3.htm]Priyanka Chopra[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Aditi-Sharma-126.htm]Aditi Sharma[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Hazel-Crowney-135.htm]Hazel Crowney[/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Kashmira-Shah-110.htm]Kashmira Shah[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.penisenlargementv.com]Penis Enhancement[/url]
[url=http://www.penisenlargementv.com/vigr-plus.html][/url]
[url=http://www.penisenlargementv.com]penis enlargement pills[/url]
[url=http://www.penisenlargementv.com]natural penis enlargement[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

hello everybody

I figured it would be a good idea to introduce myself to everyone!

Can't wait to start some good conversations!

-Marshall

Thanks again!

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Blog[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood News[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Gossip[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Actress[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Blog[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood News[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Gossip[/url]

[url=http://www.bollywood-latest.com/]Bollywood Actress[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

Once upon a time air travel was a great deal simpler than it is today. You called one of a few airlines that flew from your airport, the agent would tell you what flights were available for a given time, and you booked the one you wanted. Airports were always bustling places, especially during the holidays, but as long as you gave yourself adequate time, the process was usually the same. You would check your bags, go through the x-ray machine, get your boarding pass, and wait patiently at the appropriate gate. Once you got on the plane you ate the snack or meal that came with your flight and watched a movie.

In recent years travel by plane has become significantly more complicated. There are so many different configurations for flights and types of fares. Dire economic circumstances have caused airlines to raise rates and charge extra fees for everything from baggage to blankets. There are complex rules about what you can and cannot carry in your luggage. It can be very difficult to determine whether you are getting the best deal or the best services when you buy an airline ticket. The internet makes the navigation of airlines, airports, and flight itineraries easier, but, even so, be prepared to do some research if you want to find a flight at the best price.

Here is something up front that might save you time and money right off the bat. If you are traveling within the United States mainland, always look at Southwest Airlines first. Southwest is almost always the best deal you will find. However, Southwest itineraries do not appear on the major travel websites, so always go directly to the airline's website for information. Plug in your travel plans, and you will get a list of all the flights that are available. Southwest typically charges more reasonable prices than other airlines, and there are no hidden fees. The price you see is the price you get although tax and the government fee that is attached to all flights does apply. For lower prices than you can probably get anywhere else look at the "web only" fares, but keep in mind that these fares are not refundable.

[url=http://cheapairtickets.qarri.com/]Tips and tricks for cheap air tickets[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

In 1959 phentermine first received approval from the FDA as an appetite suppressing drug. Phentermine hydrochloride then became available in the early 1970s. It was previously sold as Fastin from King Pharmaceuticals for SmithKline Beecham, however in 1998 it was removed from the market. Medeva Pharmaceuticals sells the name brand of phentermine called Ionamin and Gate Pharmaceuticals sells it as Adipex-P. Phentermine is also currently sold as a generic. Since the drug was approved in 1959 there have been almost no clinical studies performed. The most recent study was in 1990 which combined phentermine with fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine and became known as Fen-Phen.[citation needed]
In 1997 after 24 cases of heart valve disease in Fen-Phen users, fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were voluntarily taken off the market at the request of the FDA. Studies later proved that nearly 30% of people taking fenfluramine or dexfenfluramine had abnormal valve findings. The FDA did not ask manufacturers to remove phentermine from the market.
[url=http://www.buyphentermine1.com]buy phentermine online[/url] Phentermine is still available by itself in most countries, including the U.S. However, because it is similar to amphetamines, it is classified as a controlled substance in many countries (including Australia). Internationally, phentermine is a schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[1] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.
Looking forward, Phentermine is being studied with another medication for obesity. The experimental appetite suppressant drug Qnexa is a mixture of Phentermine and Topiramate.
Phentermine, in doses clinically used, works on the hypothalamus portion of the brain to release norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter or chemical messenger that signals a fight-or-flight response, reducing hunger. Phentermine works outside the brain as well to release epinephrine or adrenaline causing fat cells to break down stored fat, but the principal basis of efficacy is hunger-reduction. At high doses, phentermine releases serotonin and dopamine as well, but such doses are never used in clinical medicine.
[url=http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=www.buyphentermine1.com&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=]google for www.buyphentermine1.com[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

check out the new free [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casino games[/url] at the all new www.casinolasvegass.com, the most trusted [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casinos[/url] on the web! enjoy our [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com/download.html]free casino software download[/url] and win money.
you can also check other [url=http://sites.google.com/site/onlinecasinogames2010/]online casinos[/url] and [url=http://www.bayareacorkboard.com/]poker room[/url] at this [url=http://www.buy-cheap-computers.info/]casino[/url] sites with 100's of [url=http://www.place-a-bet.net/]free casino games[/url]. for new gamblers you can visit this [url=http://www.2010-world-cup.info]online casino[/url].

Anónimo dijo...

[URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=18509][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/123/Zarine Khan-17.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

[URL=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/details.php?image_id=18508][IMG]http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/data/thumbnails/123/Zarine Khan-16.jpg[/IMG][/URL]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Zarine-Khan-123.htm]Zarine Khan [/url]

[url=http://www.wallpaperhungama.in/cat-Zarine-Khan-123.htm]
Zarine Khan Wallpapers[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

if you guys exigency to nasty [url=http://www.generic4you.com]viagra[/url] online you can do it at www.generic4you.com, the most trusted viagra pharmacopoeia seeking generic drugs.
you can descry drugs like [url=http://www.generic4you.com/Sildenafil_Citrate_Viagra-p2.html]viagra[/url], [url=http://www.generic4you.com/Tadalafil-p1.html]cialis[/url], [url=http://www.generic4you.com/VardenafilLevitra-p3.html]levitra[/url] and more at www.rxpillsmd.net, the chief [url=http://www.rxpillsmd.net]viagra[/url] origin on the web. well another great [url=http://www.i-buy-viagra.com]viagra[/url] pharmacy you can find at www.i-buy-viagra.com

Anónimo dijo...

You should visit http://www.EroticWebCams.net if you want to enjoy the best adult cams.

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://grou.ps/reductil] Buy reductil online
http://grou.ps/reductil
Buy reductil online

Anónimo dijo...

It's been quite a long time, since the New York based escort girls have been in the scene and they have been catering A1 escort services to clients of all types.
They are the proud owners of the best physical features and they know what their clients want from them during a session.
To avail escort girls' services, you need not do anything now.
You can easily book the Bijou and she will always arrive at the right time at a designated place. Even a very short notice can do the job for you. Complete satisfaction is guaranteed, both in mental and physical terms. If you want to hang out with a simple and adorable girl, you will get it. On the other hand, if you want to go out with a girl this is also perfectly possible. You don't have to worry about privacy matters because there are no doubts about the professional integrity of New York independent escort. Before introducing them to the clients, all the credentials of Bijou are properly checked.
[url=http://bijouescorts.com]NY Escort[/url] The growing popularity of a New York escort agency has been the outcome of a number of factors. First, a New York based escort agency believes in offering only the most exciting range of escort fun. Secondly, the rates that such an escort agency charges always comes under one's budget. Thirdly, instant access of girls in and around New York has been another major contributing factor in its success.
[url=http://bijouescorts.com/new-jersey-escorts]Escort NJ[/url]
These beautiful Asian escorts are gluts with erotica and they are compatible for giving pleasure and comfort at the utmost level.New York escort service is the main attraction of the place. People from far and near come to experience a perfect adult entertainment. The services they offer are a real pleasure. You can have the pleasure of a total girlfriend like experience you opt for from the plethora of girls. They will lead you for sightseeing or for a date, take a tour of places of your interest, go for a dance party, enjoy sensual services like hot massages, etc. Also, there are some other services like cam to cam chat or phone sex chat, naughty talk and direct physical entertainment facilities. The services offered are of superior level and may vary with different providers. It is crucial for the customers to find the right choice among the various options available.
http://bijouescorts.com The glamorous and the sexiest young escorts from New York are available in several varieties as desired by the clients. They have their own impressive style that explains a statement about their personality and high-end professionalism. You can take these girls as the most stimulating companion on any tour or social events and functions. The erotic ladies with beauty and glamour can offer a wide range of services especially for the clientele. Clients can enjoy peep shows, erotic dancing, twosome and threesome physical entertainment services, cam to cam erotica, live chat, massage services, etc.

Anónimo dijo...

[url=http://www.nehadhupia.org/]Neha Dhupia[/url]

[url=http://www.nehadhupia.org/biography/]Neha Dhupia Biography[/url]

[url=http://www.nehadhupia.org/filmography/]Neha Dhupia Filmography[/url]

[url=http://www.nehadhupia.org/photo-gallery/]Neha Dhupia Photo Gallery[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

Finally, realize that all the various bookmakers have their own rules and policies regarding how they settle bets done through arbitrage sports betting when they have such irregular results. As with the advice on pricing, be sure to check the rules of the individual bookmakers before you place your bets.

Finally, to insure that you do indeed have the best betting odds that you can get, it is crucial as a bettor to shop the money line and the odds. Any reputable sports book online would offer the best line for your wagers without coercion. However, once you have found the best deal, it is important to verify and scrutinize the odds based on the past performance of the particular teams involved you can make appropriate judgments that can be indicative of the weaknesses and strengths of the respective sporting teams. You should also do research on the sports players, injury lists, and the teams if possible.
[url=http://www.pulsebet.com]betting football[/url]
For quite some time the United States House of Representatives has been trying to pass a bill that will make it much more difficult for people to get away with breaking the online gambling laws. Not to mention stricter penalties for those who are caught.

Another important subject I must briefly refer to is "catch-up" staking. If you find that you need to employ this tactic regularly, it means three things: (1) your Selection System sucks, (2) you haven't got a clue about what constitutes a proper Staking Plan, and (3) you have turned your chances of regularly and quickly losing your Base Bank to a 100% certainty!

Anónimo dijo...

Everything about horse betting

The advent of simulcasting in the nineties made it possible for tracks to increase their own handle while boosting their revenues by accepting wagers on races from other tracks. Legalization of off-track betting facilities, phone wagering and internet wagering has created a climate where over 87% of the handle is now generated off-track. This may hurt race tracks' hot dog and popcorn sales, but should lead to increased profitability.
[url=http://www.pulsebet.com]horse betting[/url]
Another sad fact is that more than 400 in-racing horses die every year in the UK alone. They may die on the course itself, from injuries received in training or be killed by their owners - considered no longer commercially viable.


In the 131 years that have passed only 11 horses have managed to accomplish what is arguably the most difficult feat in sports. Compared to the Triple Crown, no-hitters in baseball are an everyday occurrence; back to back championships in other sporting events, a dime a dozen; there have been more solar eclipses in our lifetime than Triple Crown winners and each year more people are struck by lightening than the total number of Triple Crown winners in history.

[url=http://www.pulsebet.com]horses bet[/url]
Sweetnorthernsaint ridden by Kent Desormeaux was favored to win the Derby, but finished a disappointing seventh by 13 lengths. That though, after a bumped start and being steadied before finally tiring. With a lifetime 3 wins out of 7 starts, all 3 have come this year, and the shorter distance of the Preakness might be more to his liking.

Anónimo dijo...

Extremely funny video with a social message. Ghuggi must get a national award for his efforts.

[url=http://www.mydesizone.com/video/zy5-ryJTvZA/Ghuggi-de-barati-Gurpreet-Ghuggi.html]Ghuggi de barati - Gurpreet Ghuggi[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

Extremely funny video with a social message. Ghuggi must get a national award for his efforts.

[url=http://www.mydesizone.com/video/zy5-ryJTvZA/Ghuggi-de-barati-Gurpreet-Ghuggi.html]Ghuggi de barati - Gurpreet Ghuggi[/url]

Anónimo dijo...

That brings me on to the point of all this. Who among the many United strikers of the past have been the best? For what they are worth, here are my thoughts on the top 5 strikers in the years prior to Alex Ferguson's reign at Manchester Utd. I have a strong suspicion that if you happen to be reading this your views may not align with mine, but I can live with that. manchester united [url=http://www.pulsebet.com]manchesterunited[/url] Many famous sports personalities trace their roots to Manchester but there are too many to mention here. Aside from successfully hosting the Commonwealth Games in 2002, Manchester has tried to host the Olympic Games twice but were beaten by Atlanta in 1996 and Sydney in 2000. [url=http://www.pulsebet.com]ji sung park[/url] Hopefully this article has given an informative insight into the history of the Manchester United Shirt, and should you be asked on "Who Wants To Be A Millionaire" for the colour scheme of the Newton Railways Club shirt, you won't need to phone a friend!

Anónimo dijo...

Finding the right sports books and bookmakers to use for your arbitrage sports betting can be a daunting task with the internet now they are everywhere. The list of crooked bookmaking sites that have helped part people with their money and robbed them of their winnings grows longer every day. Being enlightened about this all sports bettors should do their due diligence before signing up with any bookmaker and be sure of their reputation as well as their guarantees on return of winnings. Almost all sports betting sites will have reviews so read them before making your decision on which one you go with.
bet football | bet online sport betting
The Parlay System is one of the most famous of betting systems that are commonly used in horse racing. Many have said that contrary to other sports betting systems, the Parlay System has a pyramiding effect on your profit which means your winnings are played on successive wagers.
[url=http://www.pulsebet.com]football bet[/url]
So you are based in the United States and worried about your money and current situation, right? If so, there is one thing that you should do right away in order to protect yourself. Close down your account, and switch your funds over to an offshore or overseas service. Not only will this ensure that you are doing everything legally, but you will also be able to keep your money safe. If you are like a lot of players you may have quite a bit of money in your online gambling account. Do you want to lose all of that if something happens? It is better to be safe than sorry in this case.

The problem is, most people wouldn't know where to begin if they had to devise their own worthwhile Selection System, and those clever enough to be able to do so simply wouldn't have the time to do it (it is an arduous task). In fact, there are only two groups of people who do bother to spend the time and money to do so properly: (i) Bookies and (ii) sports tipsters. However, while you can be 100% sure that all Bookies operate a good Selection System (but they won't share it with you), you can be sure that 99% of so-called expert tipsters don't. The number of tipsters doing a proper job on the Internet can probably be counted on the fingers of just two hands.

Anónimo dijo...

cool guys! after the latest saving [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]casino[/url] games like roulette and slots !check outlet the all stylish unburden [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casino[/url] games at the all redone www.casinolasvegass.com, the most trusted [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com]online casinos[/url] on the entanglement! appreciate our [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com/download.html]free casino software download[/url] and bring snug harbor a comfortable the bacon money.
you can also validate other [url=http://sites.google.com/site/onlinecasinogames2010/]online casinos bonus[/url] . check out this new [url=http://www.place-a-bet.net/]online casino[/url].

Anónimo dijo...

[b]King Of Pirate Online[/b]

King Of Pirate is a fully 3D-designed multiplayer online game based on 5,000 years of pirate history.

In it, comical pirate characters and creatures travel the high seas and encounter intricate story-based quests,

wondrous cities and beautiful landscapes in their search for treasures fit for a king – or a king's ransom!

Though the excitement of ship-to-ship combat is a heady brew for newcomers and veterans alike,

many players take pride in their place among the community. Whether you seek to enforce the laws of the KoP world,

http://www.KingOfPirate.com





Tales of pirates private server
pirate king online private server
top/pko private server
private server
igg top
igg

Anónimo dijo...

Allow to pass the animal with two backs casinos? digging this immature [url=http://www.realcazinoz.com]casino[/url] games. advisor and contain a withstand up online casino games like slots, blackjack, roulette, baccarat and more at www.realcazinoz.com .
you can also impede our new [url=http://freecasinogames2010.webs.com]casino[/url] poor guidance at http://freecasinogames2010.webs.com and gain authentic folding shin-plasters !
another show-off [url=http://www.ttittancasino.com]casino[/url] spiele purlieus is www.ttittancasino.com , because german gamblers, rise via unrestrained online casino bonus.

Anónimo dijo...

So I went ahead and splurged -- bought myself a [url=http://www.ordio.com.au/products/Fatman-iTube-ValveDock-with-Speakers.html]Fatman iTube Valve[/url] and I've got to say I am an extremely happy customer. I actually listened to one at a friend's house several months back and just couldn't get that sound out of my head because it blew me away. I searched everywhere for a great deal and finally found it at [url=http://www.ordio.com.au]Ordio[/url] in Westfield Bondi Junction. I phoned them first and asked a bunch of questions and everything was answered to my satisfaction so I went ahead and bought it. Dispatch was surprisingly fast. Everything was as it should be. I'm pretty darn happy and I'm playing it right now. Not sure if they ship outside of Oz but you won't be sorry if they do.

Music to my ears...

Harry

Anónimo dijo...

Playing bingo needs more than luck or skills and techniques, contrary to what most believe. Bingo, just like any game of chance, comes with rules and regulations that players should observe. Being a player comes with responsibilities and etiquette.

Winning the Game

The moment you figured out you won, you must immediately yell BINGO, and it should be loud enough for the floor walker to hear. The pot money shall be given to the winner once their winning card is confirmed. Well, in winning or once you know you just won, the most important thing is that you shout the winning word BEFORE the time elapses. If the game proceeds and the next number is mentioned and you failed to shout "Bingo", your winning card is disqualified. Therefore, this is the rule you must know.

There may be cases when there are two winners, and in this case the pot money shall be divided equally among the winners. Supposing there are two winning cards, the two winners will share half the prize money.

Bingo Game Rules

Bingo rules are basically the same no matter in which Online Bingo hall you play. But still it's good if you know these rules by heart. If it is your first try, then ask for handouts and inquire from pros regarding the game rules. Nonetheless, the ideal thing to do if you have questions is to ask the floor walker and not the person seated beside you. You should clarify things and doubts before the game starts because asking too many questions as the game proceeds could well distract you. This guideline also applies to those who are newcomers at casinos, those who play roulette for the first time.

Bingo halls demand an age limit of 18 years old. If you are below this age, you are prohibited to play. Some bingo houses ban alcohol inside, so players aren't supposed to take liquor nor drink it inside the venue. Smoking may also be restricted inside the venue, as there are designated smoking sections.

Take note that some Bingo houses don't allow food but some do, so it basically depends on the venue. Policies vary among different venues. For instance, some bingo halls allow reservation of cards, while others don't allow it. Some allow people to leave the venue in the middle of the game, others forbid it. But there are general policies observed in all bingo houses, such as disqualification of tampered bingo cards. There is no way you can get away with a tampered card because the walkers are adept at identifying authentic cards from tampered ones. You could be banned from a bingo establishment if proven liable of tampering a card. Hence, you should play honestly.

Interestingly, some venues offer special bingo games for kids although some halls don't allow players to have companions while playing. Suppose you bring kids with you, don't let them run around the venue and bother other gamers. They should behave well whilst you play and the game proceeds. Play quietly and don't recite the numbers you desperately want to come off because you'll be much of a disturbance if you do. Decorous playing is expectant of all players, even those who play roulette at casinos. Also, having a valid identification is important because you don't know you might win and need to present credentials.

More Online Bingo Info at Bingo Snooper Visit Now http://www.bingosnooper.com

Anónimo dijo...

welcome I am looking for people to join my Guild Caesary come take a look. and join my guild please! hawks raiders at http://www.lekool.com. Been playing Caesary game for 6 weeks. Caesary has been the best browser game in a long time!

[url=http://caesary.lekool.com]Caesary[/url]
[url=http://caesary.lekool.com]browser based[/url]
[url=http://video.lekool.com]Game Videos[/url]
[url=http://dc.lekool.com]Game Videos[/url]

buy cialis online dijo...

That was an interesting piece of information on handwriting analysis. Please post more about graphology. Thank you!

order viagra dijo...

Hello I enjoyed yoiur article. I think you have some good ideas and everytime i learn something new i dont think it will ever stop always new info , Thanks for all of your hard work!.